Preliminary Study of Effects of Diet Control Program using FoodExchange on Knowledge, Food Consumption Behaviors, andGlycemic Control among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes

Nareemarn Neelapaichit, Chularuk Kaveevivitchai, Noppawan Piaseu

Abstract


OBJECTIVE: This quasi-experimental research aimed to examine the effects of a dietcontrol program using food exchange on knowledge, food consumption behaviors,glycemic control and nutrient intake among persons with type 2 diabetes in sub-districthealth promoting hospitals.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample of 44 persons with type 2 diabetes weredivided by purposive sampling into two groups, experimental (n=22) and comparison(n=22). The experimental group participated in a 12-week diet control program usingfood exchange based on the Health Belief Model concept. The program consisted ofone education session for two hours using a video, a food exchange pamphlet, a platemodel to enhance subjects’ understanding, meal planning, and three home visit followups.Data were collected via four instruments: a demographic data questionnaire, healthinformation records, a food consumption behavior of persons with diabetes questionnaire,a knowledge test and 24 hours food record. The data was analyzed through descriptivestatistics, Wilcoxson Signed Rank test and Mann-Whitney U test.

RESULTS: After receiving the program, the experimental group had a significantlyhigher food consumption behavior score when compared to before the program (p=0.005)and scored significantly higher than the comparison group (p <0.001). Hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) levels of the experimental group showed a significant reduction in more thanthe control group (p=0.002) whereas in knowledge score and in fasting blood sugar(FBS) there was no significant difference.

CONCLUSION: It is recommended that nurses can use this program to effectivelymodify type 2 diabetic patients’ health behavior in diet control leading to glycemiccontrol.

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